Injuries are very common among people of different age groups, especially children and the elderly. It can be said that injuries are seasonal, as the number of injuries increases significantly in winter, especially when there is ice.
The most common injuries include:
Fracture is a bone damage with violation of its integrity. Traumatic fractures are divided into open (there is skin damage in the fracture area) and closed (the skin is not broken). In an open fracture, the injury is not in doubt. A closed fracture is not so obvious, especially if it is incomplete, when part of the transverse bone is broken, often in the form of a crack.
All fractures are typical:
- sharp pain with any movements and loads;
- changes in the position and shape of the limb, its shortening;
- limb dysfunction (impossibility of usual actions or abnormal mobility);
- swelling and bruising in the fracture area.
Providing first aid for limb fractures largely determines the outcome of the injury: the speed of healing, prevention of a number of complications (bleeding, displacement of fragments, shock) and has three goals:
1) creation of bone immobility in the fracture area (which prevents displacement of fragments and damage to blood vessels, nerves and muscles by their edges);
2) prevention of shock;
3) quick delivery of the victim to a medical institution.
First aid for closed fracture
If it is possible to call an ambulance, do so. After that, immobilize the injured limb, for example, put it on a pillow and provide rest. Put something cold on the alleged fracture area. The victim can be given hot tea or painkillers.
If you have to transport the victim yourself, you must first apply a splint from any available materials (boards, skis, sticks, vines, umbrellas). Any two solid objects are applied to the limb from opposite sides on top of the clothes and securely, but not tightly (so as not to disturb blood circulation) fixed with a bandage or other suitable materials at hand (belt, belt, tape, rope). It is necessary to fix two joints - above and below the fracture site. For example, in case of a shin fracture, ankle and knee joints are fixed, and in case of a hip fracture - all joints of the leg. If there is nothing at hand, the injured limb should be taped to a healthy limb (arm - to the body, leg - to the other leg). Transportation of a victim with a leg fracture is carried out in the supine position.
First aid for open fracture
An open fracture is more dangerous than a closed one, as there is a possibility of infection of the fragments. If there is bleeding, it must be stopped. If the bleeding is minor, it is enough to apply a pressure bandage. In case of severe bleeding, apply a tourniquet, not forgetting to note the time of its application. If the transportation time takes more than 1.5-2 hours, then every 30 minutes the tourniquet should be loosened for 3-5 minutes. The skin around the wound should be treated with an antiseptic (iodine, brilliant green). In case of its absence, the wound should be covered with a cotton cloth. Now you should apply a splint, as in the case of a closed fracture, but avoiding places where bone fragments protrude outward and take the victim to a medical institution.